This page is a review of 55 landmark studies on happiness, a state of being that Laughter Wellness helps to temporarily experience (long-term happiness is a multi-faceted endeavor that requires a life-commitment): laughter uplifts your mood-states, directly impacting how you perceive the world around you and, therefore, how you react to what happens to you. When you feel good, you are more likely to redefine stress as a challenge rather than as a threat, and face demanding situations constructively and with a positive attitude.
|Theme||Conclusion of Study||Reference|
|Accuracy in diagnosis||Happy doctors made the right diagnosis faster.||Estrada, C. A., Isen, A.M., & Young, M. J., 1997.|
|Business Deals||People who expressed more positive emotions when negotiating business deals did so more efficiently and successfully than those who were more neutral or negative.||Kopelman, S., Rosette, A. S., & Thompson, L, 2006.|
|Commitment||Happier workers are more committed to their organization.||Herrbach, 2006; Judge et al., 1999; Mignonac & Herrbach, 2004; Thoresen et al., 2003.|
|Cooperation, Negotiation, Collaboration||Happier employees are more likely to manage negotiations with cooperation and collaboration than avoidance and competition. They are more able to find win-win solutions. They have less contentious behaviors.||Carnevale and Isen (1986); Baron, Fortin, Frei, Hauver, & Shack, 1990; Barsade, 2002; Forgas, 1998.|
|Creativity||Happy doctors exhibited much more creativity.||Estrada, C. A., Isen, A.M., & Young, M. J., 1997.|
|Creativity, Originality, Flexibility||Positive emotions can enhance originality and flexibility.||Estrada, Isen, & Young, 1994; Grawitch, Munz, Elliott, & Mathis, 2003; Grawitch, Munz, & Kramer, 2003; Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987; Isen, Johnson, Mertz, & Robinson, 1985; for nonexperimental work, see Madjar, Oldham, & Pratt, 2002.|
|Curiosity, Exploration||Experience of positive emotions is associated with curiosity and has been found to “broaden” a person’s attention and interests.||Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004.|
|Effectiveness||Happier employees are 25% more effective than least happy ones.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Efficiency||Happier employees are 25% more efficient than least happy ones.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Energy||Employees who are happiest have 180% more energy than those who are most unhappy at work.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Engagement||Happiest employees are 180% more engaged than unhappiest employees.
(Note: Happiness is a wider construct than Engagement. Please see later section for the difference between engagement and happiness at work.)
|Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Evaluations||Happier employees receive more positive evaluations from superiors.||Cropanzano & Wright, 1999; Wright & Staw, 1999.|
|Goals||Happier people set higher goals for themselves.
Happiest employees embrace goals 30% more.
|Baron, 1990; Hom & Arbuckle, 1988.
Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).
|Goals||Optimists set more goals, and more difficult goals, stay more engaged when things get difficult and transcend obstacles more easily.||Carver, C.S. & Scheier, M.F., 2005. Snyder, C.R. & Lopez, S.J., Scheier, M.F., Weintraub, J.K. & Carver, C.S., 1986.|
|Health||Those who are happier take less sick then less happy colleagues.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Health||People who wrote about a positive experience for 20 minutes three times a week were happier and had fewer symptoms of illnesses three months later.||Burton, C. & King, L., 2004.|
|Motivation||Employees who are happiest are 50% more motivated than those who are least happy at work.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Organizational Change Coping||Happier workers cope better with organizational change.||Judge et al., 1999.|
|Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. These include helping peers and customers, sharing, volunteering for optional tasks, being cooperative, offering suggestions for improvement, spreading goodwill.||Happier people demonstrate more “organizational citizenship” behavior. They go the extra mile, beyond what is expected of their role.||Baron et al., 1992; Borman, Penner, Allen, & Motowidlo, 2001; Credé, Chernyshenko, Stark, Dalal, & Bashshur, 2005; Fisher, 2002; George, 1991; George & Brief, 1992; Ilies, Scott, & Judge, 2006; Lee & Allen, 2002; Miles, Borman, Spector, & Fox, 2002; Rosenhan, Underwood, & Moore, 1974; Williams & Shiaw, 1999.|
|Performance||People with fixed mindsets miss good opportunities for improvement and consistently underperform while those with a “growth” mindset watch their abilities improve.||Dweck C.S., 2006.|
|Performance||Happiness is a good predictor of job performance.||Wright & Cropanzano, 2000, Hom & Arbuckle, 1988.|
|Performance||Employees who feel they have high levels of control at the office are better at their jobs and say they have more job satisfaction.||Sparr, J.L., & Sonnentag, S., 2008; Spector, P., 2002.|
|Performance ratings||Happy people are reviewed by their supervisors more favorably.||Cropanzano & Wright, 1999, Judge et al, 1999; Staw et al, 1994, Wright & Staw, 1999.|
|Performance ratings||Accounts who believed they could accomplish what they set out to do were the ones who scored the best job performance ratings ten months later.||Saks, A. M, 1995.|
|Productivity||Happiest employees are 47 percent more productive than their least happy colleagues. They are contributing a day and a quarter more per week than their least happy colleagues.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener Institute of People and Performance).|
|Receiving Social Support||Happier people receive more social support from colleagues and supervisors.||Iverson et al., 1998.|
|Respect||Happier employees report that they experience 28 % more respect from colleagues and 31% from bosses then least happy colleagues.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
|Retention, Absenteeism||Happy employees are more likely to remain at their jobs and have lower absenteeism.||Seligman & Schulman, 1986; Pelled & Xin, 1999.|
|Sales||Insurance agents who have a positive disposition sell more policies than less positive peers.||Seligman & Schulman, 1986.|
|Satisfaction in job, family, relationships.||More feelings of control predicted more satisfaction in job, family, relationships.||National Study of the Changing Workforce, 2002.|
|Self-belief/Confidence||Happier employees have 25% more self-belief than least happy ones.||Jessica Pryce-Jones (iOpener).|
This page was prepared in cooperation with www.joyworks.sg.